Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to two disorders (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) in which the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is inflamed for a long time. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a life-threatening gastroenteric inflammatory disease characterized by episodes of intestinal inflammation. IBD has a complicated pathogenesis. Long-term inflammation damages the gastrointestinal tract. IBD is a chronic disease that strikes both men and women at an early age. IBD's incidence and prevalence increased dramatically in the second half of the twentieth century, and IBD has been regarded as one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders in newly industrialized countries since the turn of the century.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects about 20% of the adult population in high-income nations and is defined by recurrent and bothersome heartburn and regurgitation, as well as GERD-specific consequences. GERD is a condition marked by troubling symptoms and consequences caused by stomach contents refluxing into the oesophagus. GERD is often diagnosed based on classic symptoms and an empiric trial's response to acid suppression. GERD is a serious health problem because it is linked to a lower quality of life and a high rate of morbidity. While GERD drugs are not exceptionally expensive, the cost of treating GERD patients has been estimated to be two times that of non-GERD patients.